Fractional Finance

Frational Real Estate, or Frational Ownership, is when the ownership of a property, usually expensive, is shared between several owners.

Fractional ownership is a method by which multiple unrelated parties can participate in and mitigate the risk of ownership of a high-value tangible asset, usually a jet, yacht or resort. It can be done for strictly monetary reasons, but typically there is some degree of personal access involved. One of the main motives for a fractional purchase is the opportunity to share the cost of maintaining an asset that will not be used full-time by an owner.

Any fractional effort requires some form of management to administer rules and regulations (which are agreed upon before the fraction is purchased) and maintain the asset to the degree described in the ownership documents. Generally, management will oversee the day-to-day operations of more than one property, even if it is not required. A single fractional asset may be managed by a single entity. Each owner is guaranteed a prescribed amount of access to the asset, which typically can be used or offered to the public as rentals or charters; income is usually split between the management company and the fractional owner, unless the owner finds the tenant himself. In addition, each owner pays a portion of the annual management fees and maintenance in proportion to the percentage of ownership.

In business, fractional ownership is a percentage of an expensive asset. Shares are sold to individual owners. Typically a company manages the asset on behalf of the owners who pay monthly/annual management fees plus variable (e.g. Per Hour, Per Day) usage fees. For rapidly depreciating assets, the management company may sell the asset and distribute the proceeds back to the owners, who may then claim a capital loss and possibly purchase a fractional share of a new asset.

Whether fractional ownership provides an economic advantage over rent is an ongoing debate, and some countries and regions have tax laws that provide owners with additional benefits, such as capital losses, while others may penalize ownership over rent.

Fractional Ownership is the practice of sharing ownership of an item and dividing the use of that item. It is used for ships such as tankers and cargo ships, aircraft such as business jets and helicopters, and other high-value, registrable property, and has been applied to non-capital goods such as timeshares in resorts and condominiums.

The advantage is that the total cost per person is kept low, since the costs of purchase, insurance and mooring (parking) can be shared between the users. The market for ships and aircraft, in particular, has been slow to grow due to the high cost of ownership, the need to secure moorings, repairs and regular maintenance, and the fact that only the wealthy can afford to own them. With the advent of fractional ownership, it is now possible to use an aircraft for a shorter period of time (from a few hours to a day) than with a lease at a lower cost.

Because of airport charges such as tarmac fees and inspection costs, only high income earners could afford to own even a small single-engine aircraft, and many private pilots shared a jointly purchased aircraft with a club. In 1984, Executive Jet Aviation (EJA, now NetJets) started fractional ownership (en. Fractional Jets): In 1984, Executive Jet Aviation (EJA, now NetJets) introduced Fractional Ownership (en: Fractional Jets), which greatly expanded the market as it became more widely available to those who could not afford to buy a single aircraft. This has led to the emergence of personalised services, where the company can offer a number of models and rent the aircraft of their choice by the hour.

In addition to the high cost of private boats, marinas that sell boats and ships often sell both the boat and berthing rights, making the use of private boats inflexible, but manufacturers such as Yamaha Motor are now offering their own boat-sharing services in order to increase usage.

In this form of ownership, each owner can benefit from a number of rights or advantages over the property, such as revenue sharing, priority access or reduced rates.

Frational Ownership differs from condominiums, which are built buildings where ownership is divided among several people in lots, each comprising a private portion and a share of the common areas.

Among the most common properties purchased under shared ownership are tourist accommodation, pleasure boats, tourist or business aircraft1 and even recently hotel residences, where each owner owns a room, for example, or a studio in the residence.

Typically, a company manages the property on behalf of the owners who pay a monthly or annual fee. The company may also rent out the property on behalf of the owners, in which case it distributes the income collected by taking a portion to pay for its management of the property.

Whether shared ownership is a better option than simple rental is still an open debate. Some countries have financial incentives in place that provide additional benefits for owners. Others, on the contrary, may penalise ownership over renting.

The formula is less developed in France than in the United States.

Fractional Finance

Fractional property finance comes in two forms: traditional timeshare and larger share Fractional ownership

Fractional mortgages for shares with 1/26 ownership or 2 weeks or less are considered timeshare financing and are often provided initially by project developers. Larger ownership shares are generally considered fractional ownership and are typically in shares of 1/2, 1/4, 1/6, 1/8, 1/10, 1/12, 1/20.

Fractional finance is more difficult for most lenders as there is a small market for these loans and no established secondary market for holiday finance loans of this type. More companies are borrowing for fractional homes, yachts, aircraft and other properties.


Fractional ownership allows an individual or company to buy a share of an aircraft. Shares from as little as 1/16 of an aircraft, offering approximately 50 hours of flight time per year, to 1/2 of an aircraft can be purchased, depending on the operator's needs. The most common amounts purchased usually range from about 1/8 to 1/4 (about 200 flight hours per year) of an aircraft. Although the owner takes ownership of the portion of their investment, they are not assigned a dedicated aircraft for use. Instead, they are given access to a pool of similar aircraft, and therefore an owner can theoretically never fly their jet.

Co-owners (called 'owners') of a fractional aircraft are required to pay a percentage of the aircraft's purchase price, proportionate to the number of hours they wish to fly per year, over their contract-typically 5 years. In addition to the price, there are fees for all flight hours occupied (which fluctuate with changes in fuel prices) as well as monthly fixed administration fees covering maintenance and administration of the programme. In return, the customer receives a predetermined number of hours in the aircraft of their choice, based on the owner's needs and the amount they are willing to pay. Fractional owners are guaranteed that this aircraft or another aircraft of the same model or similar aircraft type will be available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, with as little as four hours notice. In addition, the management company provides all scheduling, flight planning, staffing, catering, maintenance, communications and insurance services. A fractional owner simply picks up the phone, calls a dispatcher, requests a flight and drives to the airport.


The term fractional ownership was originally popular for business aircraft. Richard Santulli of NetJets pioneered the concept of allowing companies to buy shares in a jet aircraft to reduce costs. [Citation needed] With a fractional jet plan, members will typically fly in any available jet, not necessarily the one in which they own shares. The management company will redeploy jets as needed and provide flight crews. Companies with greater needs purchase larger shares to access more time.

The fractional ownership concept has since been extended to smaller aircraft and is now common for single-engine piston aircraft like the Cirrus SR22, which are beyond the financial means of many private pilots. The same concepts apply, except that the management company may not provide flight crews or move the aircraft.

Many pilots come together to purchase light aircraft in a privately purchased and managed fractional ownership, this is often known as group flying.

Fractional ownership has played a significant role in revitalizing the general aviation industry since the late 1990s, and most manufacturers actively support fractional ownership programs.

Fractional property ownership

Fractional ownership simply means dividing any asset into parts or shares. If the "asset" is property, the property or deed can be legally divided into shares. In some cases, this is done by creating a "mezzanine structure", i.e. creating a company that owns the property and then allowing multiple owners or investors to hold shares in the company. These shares can then be bought and held by more than one person. The reasons for a "mezzanine structure" can vary. Two common reasons are to allow the transfer of shares without having to reflect changes in ownership or the deed to the property and for tax advantages.

Another type of fractional ownership that is not part of a securitized business plan is tenancy in common, which is based on most if not all states' real estate laws. The main difference is that there is no right of survivorship for the sponsor or other owners should one or more of the owners pass away. Where there are similarities with equal sharing of operating expenses, rental income and access, the significant difference is free transfer of the owner's interest in the property without regard to the other owners in the property.

Shared ownership of the property and its deed will also entitle the shareholders to certain use rights, usually in the form of weeks. Conceptually, fractional ownership is not the same as timeshare. Fractional ownership provides much of the freedom and use benefits offered in timeshare; however, the fundamental difference in fractional ownership is that the buyer owns a portion of the title (as opposed to "time" units). Therefore, if the property increases in value, so do the shares. As with whole ownership, fractional owners can sell when they deem it necessary or prudent, freeing up capital growth from their "bricks and mortar" investment.

Real estate

The custom of joining together with family and friends to share ownership of holiday properties has been around for many years. But fractional ownership started in the US in Rocky Mountain ski resorts in the early 1990s. These first fractional developments recognized that people did not want to buy entire homes that they would only use for a few weeks a year in the mountains. According to research firm Ragatz Associates, there were over 312 fractional developments in North America in 2017. The US mountain region has the majority of active fractional property available, with the US Pacific region next. The prevalent recreational activity for fractional property owners in the U.S. Mountain region is skiing. In 2018, the most common fractional ownership available in North America is one-quarter ownership, giving owners three months of total annual visitation.

Outside the United States, a non-commercial form of fractional ownership has existed for several decades. In this form, otherwise -unrelated individuals (rather than family or friends) form private syndicates for, say, the purchase of vacation properties or boats. These syndicates operate as private membership groups with a small number on a non-profit basis, generally only by sharing expenses and use. These groups can involve assets ranging from modest apartments or condominium-type properties to multimillion-euro/dollar properties and leverage their ability to make collective purchases of additional assets such as boats or vehicles as additional amenities, while maintaining control solely within the membership of the group.

The popularity of the term fractional ownership has caused widespread rebranding in other industries where similar concepts, such as real estate, were already well established. The main difference between timeshare and fractional ownership is that with a timeshare you buy the right to use a property, but with fractional ownership you buy real estate. You get a deeded property, just not for the whole package.

Fractional ownership divides a property into more affordable segments for individuals and also matches a person's ownership time with their actual usage time. A fractional ownership gives owners certain privileges, such as a number of days or weeks in which they can use the property. Occasionally, the property is sold after a predetermined time and distributes the relative income back to the owners. A few private ownership groups have developed very sophisticated use allocation schemes and other features based on the principle of trying to get as close as possible to the flexibility of individual ownership and compromising this only to the minimum extent necessary to accommodate multiple owners. In such schemes the basic agreement is between the members themselves, whereas in most commercial fractional ownership schemes the owner's main relationship is with the property developer and/or the promoter of the scheme.


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This page was last changed on 2021-09-21.